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| 1 May 2012
President Kiir 24 April said Sudan had “declared war” following continued airstrikes; AU 24 April gave Sudan and S Sudan 3 months to reach deal, end fighting, or face “appropriate measures” following continued deterioration in relations throughout April (see Sudan). S Sudan 4 April claimed forces shot down Sudanese jet over Unity State. Govt 25 April released 14 Sudanese soldiers in move hoped to ease tensions, soldier alleged beatings, mistreatment; govt same day accused Khartoum of bombing Unity state. Govt 28 April said attack by Khartoum-backed rebels in Upper Nile state repulsed, 21 killed; 29 April said committed to an "immediate cessation of all hostilities" with Sudan, would withdraw all police from Abyei, in letter to UN.
| 1 Apr 2012
Clashes between SPLA and Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) 26 March sparked fears of return to war; SPLA accused SAF of bombing disputed Jau, Pan Akuach, Teshwin areas near Helgig, said SPLA acted in self-defence. SPLA said SAF 30 March bombed SPLA border positions, SAF denied. Sudan-S Sudan AUHIP-facilitated negotiations 13 March had reached agreement on nationality, border demarcation process, renewed commitment to negotiations on outstanding issues including oil. At least 63 wounded 9 March when gunmen attacked Lou Nuer cattle camps in Akobo and Wanding areas near border with Ethiopia; UNMISS dispatched patrol and medical teams, condemned attacks, urged Jonglei state communities to end violence; UNHCR announced estimated 15,000 fleeing Jonglei violence have entered Ethiopia since mid-Feb.
| 1 Mar 2012
Tensions with Sudan continued throughout month: Secretary General of SPLM 13 Feb said Khartoum had seized another 2.4mn barrels of southern oil; govt 15 Feb threatened permanent closure of oil pipeline to Sudan Red Sea port following failed 6 day AU-mediated talks, further talks scheduled for 24 Feb delayed to 6 March. Juba 17 Feb warned Chinese companies operating in South faced expulsion if found complicit in Khartoum’s oil “theft”, 21 Feb expelled head of Chinese Petrodar oil company for “non cooperation”. Juba 17 Feb introduced set of austerity measures to counteract loss of revenue due to oil production shutdown. Govt 14 Feb accused Sudan of bombing disputed Jau town 11 Feb, after non-aggression pact signed in Ethiopia 10 Feb. Senior UN Humanitarian Affairs official Valerie Amos early Feb visited Jonglei, expressed concern over ongoing internal violence; 37 killed 3 Feb when armed men opened fire at mediation meeting in Unity state; Dinka Bor youth 8 Feb reportedly attacked Murle community in Manyibol, Pibor county, killing 9 and injuring 11. Mid-Feb 3-day peace conference bringing together communities along Sudan-S Sudan border, including nomadic Missiriya and Dinka Malual, called for international assistance resolving border disputes; UN SRSG for S Sudan and UNMISS head Hilde Johnson called on warring ethnic groups to find peaceful solutions. Govt 28 Feb announced ceasefire, peace agreement with former George Athor rebels.
| 1 Feb 2012
Relations with Khartoum further deteriorated; govt mid-Jan initiated shutdown of all oil production after AU-facilitated oil talks faltered and following additional seizures of South Sudan oil by Khartoum; “thefts” allegedly worth $815m since Dec 2011. Air raid by Sudanese armed forces on Upper Nile State refugee camp 23 Jan wounded at least 1. Scores killed, thousands displaced in continuing violence between Murle and Lou Nuer; Murle retaliatory attacks launched throughout Jan in Akobo, Uror and Duk Padiet counties. At least 70 reported killed in attack on Tonj East County, Warrap state, by armed youths from Mayendit County; govt accused Khartoum of arming militia. UNSRSG Hilde Johnson 19 Jan called for “redoubling of efforts” to curb violence, emphasised role of UN in deterring even greater violence, pledged additional UNMISS attention, called for additional troops. Govt 19 Jan said groups would be forcibly disarmed if necessary.
| 2 Jan 2012
Tensions with Sudan continued to escalate following Nov AU-mediated talks, due to reconvene Jan. Sudan and S Sudan armed forces clashed in disputed Jau territory early Dec. President Kiir 16 Dec accused Sudan of trying to destabilise country with cross-border militia raids, bombings; denied allegations S Sudan supporting militias fighting Sudanese Armed Forces in S Kordofan, Blue Nile states. Govt 21 Dec accused Khartoum of forcibly conscripting southern students; 29 Dec said Sudanese air raid killed 17 in Western Bahr al-Ghazal border state, Khartoum denied. Lou Nuer and Murle joint dialogue postponed to Jan amid escalating violence. At least 40 killed in clashes, cattle raiding in Jonglei early Dec; UN 26 Dec warned thousands of armed Lou Nuer youths planning attack on Murle tribe. VP Riek Machar 20 Dec announced rebel George Athor killed by SPLA following string of rebel attacks near state capital Bor and in Pigi county. U.S. early Dec amended economic sanctions against Sudan to allow U.S. investment in S Sudan oil market.
| 1 Dec 2011
North-South relations further deteriorated when Sudanese Armed Forces reportedly launched cross-border airstrikes on Maban County, Upper Nile State, and 10 Nov bombed Yida refugee camp, Unity state, killing 12; Khartoum denied. Negotiations with Sudan 25-30 Nov made no progress on oil and outstanding issues (See Sudan). Clashes between South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) rebels and govt forces continued. SSLA 24 Nov claimed govt soldiers and officer captured, urged civilians and aid workers to evacuate Mayom, Unity State, ahead of planned attack. Militia with suspected ties to rebel George Athor 16 Nov attacked 3 villages in Jonglei killing 4; Athor 20 Nov said further violence likely after talks with President Kiir failed. 2 journalists released 19 Nov after 2 week illegal detention by security forces allegedly for publishing article criticising marriage of President Kiir’s daughter to Ethiopian national.
| 1 Nov 2011
Leaders from at least 18 opposition parties 13 Oct reported they were considering forming single opposition party. Govt 16 Oct urged international community to set deadline for Sudan withdrawal from Abyei following Khartoum declaration that they would not pull out troops unless 20 June deal on managing region is fully implemented. Minister for defence and veteran affairs John Koang Nyuon 24 Oct arrived in Jonglei state capital Bor to discuss security situation, disarmament; said civilian disarmament will start after rainy season ends in Nov. Rebel South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) 27 Oct threatened to attack Unity state govt, gave UN agencies and aid groups one week to leave. Around 80 killed in rebel SSLA attack on Mayom county, Unity state, 29 Oct; army claimed rebels expelled from county.
| 1 Oct 2011
Sudan, South Sudan 9 Sept reached agreement to ease border tensions in Abyei (see Sudan). Per unresolved dispute with Khartoum over oil fees, official 9 Sept announced govt intention to pay in arrears for use of Sudan’s oil facilities until parties reach final decision on transit fees. Opposition United Democratic Salvation Front (UDSF) head David Biel Jal arrested 2 Sept after criticising composition of new cabinet. Govt 23 Sept re-committed to DDR program, announced plans to demobilise 150,000 soldiers. Signalling persistent North-South tensions, official 24 Sept threatened to close border with Sudan from Dec in retaliation to blockade imposed by Khartoum.
| 1 Sep 2011
Retaliatory cattle raids by Murle tribesmen on 3 ethnic Nuer villages in Jonglei State 18 Aug left at least 600 dead, 200 possibly abducted, up to 30,000 cattle reportedly stolen, increased fears for instability. Rebel leader Pater Gadet agreed 3 Aug ceasefire with President Kiir; declared intention to integrate forces into S Sudan Army, though process incomplete. Other rebel SSLA forces still outstanding. Several killed in land mine incidents in Unity state. Army 25 Aug reported clashes with rebel generals George Athor, Gordon Kong in Upper Nile State; scores dead. Govt 1 Aug reached tentative agreement with Sudan over border security (see Sudan); 27 Aug announced new 29-member cabinet. Amid disputes over oil fees, Sudan 6 Aug released S Sudanese oil shipment held over customs duties. Govt 15 Aug joined AU, offered to contribute peacekeeping troops for Somalia. UN 3 Aug criticised S Sudan for jailing journalist reporting on alleged rape of foreign aid worker; 26 Aug condemned police beating of senior rights official.
| 1 Aug 2011
South Sudan 9 July declared independence, amid swift international recognition of new state; UNGA 14 July admitted nation as member. Speaking alongside other international figures at celebrations in Juba, Sudan President Bashir highlighted commitment to resolve outstanding issues of Comprehensive Peace Agreement. New peacekeeping mission UNMISS launched as UNMIS draws down. Govt 6 July raised possibility of exporting oil through E Africa, bypassing Sudan. SPLM Sec Gen 25 July accused Sudan of “economic war” by introducing new currency early. Parliamentary opposition leader Onyoti Nyikwec 7 July accused security forces of beating, detaining opposition members. Prominent journalist Abuzar Al Amin sentenced 14 July to year in prison for “undermining the constitution”, after criticising govt. Unity State rebel leader Gatluak Gai killed 23 July, days after signing peace deal with SPLA; SPLA denied involvement, blamed Gai’s deputy. Militias allegedly allied to rebel leader Peter Gadet late June attacked Turalei, Warrap State; 11 killed.
- Comment by Louise Arbour (Crisis Group), “New Countries, Old Problems”, International Herald Tribune, 8 Jul 2011.
“After years of struggle, South Sudan becomes a new nation”, New York Times, 9 July 2011.
- For latest report, see Crisis Group Africa Report N°172, Politics and Transition in the New South Sudan, 4 April 2011.
| 1 Jul 2011
Continued clashes between N and S Sudan over flashpoint region of Abyei despite mid-June agreement (See N Sudan). In spill-over fighting SAF forces 9-13 June bombed north part of Unity State; numerous casualties. UN warned deteriorating situation creating serious food shortages in Unity State, said more than 200,000 displaced, 1,556 killed in S Sudan this year. Attacks by cattle raiders 9-13 June in Lakes State, and renegade General Peter Gadet 13 June in Warrap State reportedly left further 100 dead. Rebel leader in Jonglei State David Yauyau 15 June signed ceasefire with govt of S Sudan (GoSS). President Bashir 22 June threatened to shut oil pipelines from S Sudan if GoSS does not hand over half of oil revenue or pay for pipeline use; S Sudan in favour of fees. High profile journalist Nhial Bol Aken said received threats from security services after criticising GoSS.
| 1 Jun 2011
Tensions flared with N Sudan over Abyei, exacerbated by Northern invasion and control of area in breach of existing agreements, tens of thousands of Abyei residents fled south (see North Sudan). Government of South Sudan (GoSS) 5 May passed draft transitional constitution – without reference to Abyei – despite opposition objections over undemocratic measures: constitution stipulates president will serve 4 years starting 9 July, no term limit, no date for new elections; has powers to dismiss elected officials, state parliaments. UN 25 May proposed new peacekeeping force for S Sudan, UNMISS; Khartoum 28 May said UNMIS mandate to end 9 July. Clashes between govt forces and renegade generals continued in Unity state, including with Peter Gadet 8-9 May; GoSS claimed 100 rebels killed. At least 80 killed 10 May following rebel attack on cattle herders.
| 1 May 2011
Increased fighting between govt and rebel militias mid month saw more than 165 soldiers, rebels, northern tribesman and civilians killed in 7-day period. New rebel group South Sudan Liberation Army (SSLA) led by former Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) general Peter Gadet Yak urged overthrow of President Salva Kiir’s govt in 11 Apr “Mayoum Declaration”, called for national broad-based govt. At least 30 killed 19 Apr during SPLA clash with suspected forces loyal to renegade Gadet in Unity state. In Jonglei state, SPLA said killed at least 55 rebel fighters led by General Gabriel Tanginye 23 Apr; Tanginye reportedly surrendered next day. WFP 27 Apr announced suspension of operations in 7 of 11 Jonglei counties due to violence. Fighting reported 23 Apr between Thuyic and Gong ethnic groups in Rumbek state left 10 dead. Human Rights Watch 19 Apr said SPLA and Olony rebel group responsible for more than 60 mainly civilians killed during 6-7 March clashes in Upper Nile state triggered by govt’s anti-insurgency campaign. 27-28 Apr meeting of leaders of all political parties to review draft constitution for independent South Sudan ended without consensus.
| 1 Apr 2011
As constitutional review process continued, 9 opposition parties 8 March announced they will pull out of technical committee claiming decisions reached by majority votes rather than consensus, enabling SPLM to determine course of review. Early March clashes in Jonglei between Sudan People’s Liberation Army and forces loyal to renegade General Athor re-erupted 16 March forcing civilians to flee. At least 59 SPLA rebels reportedly killed 18 March during clashes with army in Unity and Upper Nile. SPLA said North dropped bombs 21 March near SPLA base in Raja County, Western Bahr al-Ghazal, bordering Darfur.
| 1 Feb 2011
Preliminary results from historic 9-15 Jan self-determination referendum indicate 99% vote for secession. U.S. Sec State Clinton, UNSC 18 Jan commended South Sudanese people, referendum commission and bureau; international observers said process free and fair in line with international standards. President Bashir 25 Jan pledged support to South.
Items 51 - 65 of 65